– the transfer of personal data to third countries outside the European Union;
– the processing of special categories of data; and
This generally refers to the application of the general data protection principles, in particular purpose limitation, data minimisation, limited storage periods, data quality, data protection by design and by default, legal basis for processing, processing of special categories of personal data, measures to ensure data security, and the requirements in respect of onward transfers to bodies not bound by the binding corporate rules. This may also refer to the use of encryption or pseudonymization, standard data protection clauses adopted by the European Commission, contractual clauses authorized by a supervisory authority, or certification schemes or codes of conduct authorized by the Commission or a supervisory authority. Those safeguards should ensure compliance with data protection requirements and the rights of the data subjects appropriate to processing within the European Union.